advantage for growth, since it is not directly at the falls, but the energy of its merchants for building a transportation network into the agricultural regions upstream, and even in the Rappahannock and Shenandoah watersheds, drew agricultural trade from the backcountry to © Copyright 2020 Kids Discover. Have students select a state. This more detailed map is a 1960s geologic map from the United States Geologic Survey, from this website. Some small communities developed on the Fall Line, such as Ashland, but they were limited in size because the topography limited the size of their natural "backcountry" or "hinterland" market. On the Potomac, Alexandria is slightly east of the geologic barrier, Little Falls in the PotomacRiver, but it's deepwater harbor allowed it to compete with Georgetown to become the market center for the Piedmont and valleys west of the Blue Ridge. A shot of the Unites States at night. Alexandria had less of a natural There are no cities on the crest of the mountains, because there was no requirement for shippers to shift from one form of transportation to another. Secure Server - We value your privacy. The Trail of Tears: Why Were the Cherokees Removed? Lynchburg is not on the Fall Line or at the Blue Ridge. Congratulations – you’ve created a simple geologic map. Virginia’s capital, Richmond, is built along the banks of the James River where it dashes over the falls of the James River into navigable water. Why Were Early Georgia Cities Located On The Fall Line? Among other amenities, this ideal spot might feature: It’s no coincidence that cities like Richmond, Virginia; Washington, DC; Trenton, New Jersey; and Hartford, Connecticut, all boast just these features. rapids and falls to power saw mills and grist mills. Augusta, Georgia, of golf tournament fame, is another colonial settlement created along the fall line, the furthest boats could get up the Savannah River. cities, but carry the agricultural excess from only a few farms (or bars of pig iron from a furnace). Today we rely upon chemical energy from coal, gas, oil, or nuclear power to create steam and electricity. Occoquan got its initial start when the Lee and Carter families disputed access to the Potomac River at Great Falls. The string of lights running parallel to the eastern seaboard (far right) are major cities along The Fall Line. Until the 1900's, however, almost all manufacturing in Virginia was located at places where the facilities could rely upon waterpower. The Lees quickly patented the lands along the Potomac River, forcing the Carters to build a "ox road" to the Occoquan for shipping the copper downstream. How Did the Cotton Gin Shape Georgia’s Economy? Why didn't large cities develop on the Occoquan, Matta, Po, Ni, North Anna, or South Anna rivers where they cross the Fall Line? It drains into the Albemarle-Pamlico Sound in North Carolina, where ships struggle to traverse the shallow, dangerous inlets between the barrier islands to reach the ocean. How Did the Cotton Gin Shape Georgia’s Economy? What is the difference between Nor'easter and hurricane? National Elevation Dataset - Shaded Relief Map of Virginia, The Clay Deposits of the Virginia Coastal plain, York River & Small Coastal Basins Roundtable, A general map of the middle British colonies, in America, Why Virginia's Cities and Towns Are Located Where They Are. Was Sherman’s March to the Sea Justified? Why just plunk your cornerstones down anywhere when you could have the perfect town site? (Image: NASA). The Carters thought they could develop a copper mine on their land at today's Frying Pan Park in Fairfax County. When rivers flow over that boundary between ancient hard rock and relatively young, soft layers of sediment, they literally fall off the edge of the (old) continent into the geological coastal zone. In contrast, shipping from cities in the Chesapeake Bay watershed could easily sail or steam between Cape Henry and Cape Charles with far fewer concerns regarding channel depth or currents threatening to drive them ashore. Booker T. Washington or W.E.B. Why Were Early Georgia Cities Located On The Fall Line? He knew that the Fall Line locations on the James and Appomattox Rivers were destined to grow into transhipment points. That natural boundary could be overcome by financing turnpikes and canals and railroads - but small communities had access to less capital, so Other ways include bedrock control on topography, (such as valleys and ridges), availability of groundwater or surface water, ease or difficulty of access (flat land is easier to build roads across unless it’s marshy), and location of mineral resources. The existence of a physical barrier does not by itself cause cities to develop. In addition, the water power provided by the rivers allowed manufacturing to develop at those locations. Here’s one of Virginia, showing the Fall Line, with an excellent overview discussion, too. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades. You'll look in vain for an urban center on the Nottoway, the Powell, or the Clinch. Georgia has consistently mild climate. From Georgia to Massachusetts, these and other cities are lined up like a string of stars along an important geologic boundary called the Fall Line. Booker T. Washington or W.E.B. The next transportation barrier to the west of the Fall Line, encountered by Virginia settlers in the mid-1700's, is the Blue Ridge. The Trail of Tears: Why Were the Cherokees Removed? DuBois: Who Had the Right Strategy for Black America? How Did the Cotton Gin Shape Georgia’s Economy? Alexandria. In short, the geologic setting provided the foundation for economic and social success. Georgia Women in World War II: What Stories Should Be Told? The Fall Line cities developed into manufacturing as well as transportation centers because the falling water provided mechanical energy for powering equipment. Those city founders knew a good thing when they found it. Picture yourself during colonial times, searching for a spot to start a new settlement. Booker T. Washington or W.E.B. maybe even a little elevation to build houses above the mosquito-thickened swamps in the lowlands. And while, at first glance, it may appear that every Metropolitan Statistical Area (as defined by the Bureau of Census) is centered on a river, the development of Roanoke had little to do with water transportation or even waterpower. There's one small Fall Line city in Virginia south of Petersburg, Emporia on the Meherrin River. The waterfalls off the fall line where difficult to travel over. Look at the Occoquan, Matta, Po, Ni, North Anna, or South Anna on the map, and you can tell why no large cities evolved on them: As a result, there were fewer barrels of flour, fewer hogsheads of tobacco to be shipped downstream for commercial sale, and less of an upstream market for iron tools, clothing, glass, or other items not manufactured in the local area. What cities line up on it? Were the 1996 Olympic Games Good for Atlanta. Those city founders knew a good thing when they found it. All Rights Reserved. Georgia's Regions study guide by Asia_Brooks8 includes 14 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. A fall line (or fall zone) is the area where an upland region and a coastal plain meet and is typically prominent where rivers cross it, with resulting rapids or waterfalls.The uplands are relatively hard crystalline basement rock, and the coastal plain is softer sedimentary rock. Grab a map and try a connect- the-dots between these Fall Line cities (a suggested activity for your students, too). DuBois: Who Had the Right Strategy for Black America? Was Sherman’s March to the Sea Justified? In Richmond, for example, the story goes that “in 1607, after 10 days of travel up Powhatan’s River (later known as the James River), Captain John Smith and 120 men from Jamestown, Virginia, settled at the river’s highest navigable location.” (