One notable survivor: 1 year old Elvis Presley", 10.1175/1520-0493(1939)67<176:tcmt>;2, "Top Ten Deadliest Oklahoma Tornadoes (1882-Present)", "Tornado Observing tornadoes, dust devils, whirl winds, water spouts and land spouts", "23 September 2003: Australian thunderstorm climatology", "From domestic to international: Tornadoes around the world | United States Tornadoes", F5 Tornadoes in the U.S. since 1950 (SPC/NOAA), Climatological Risk of Strong and Violent Tornadoes in the United States (Paper 9.4, Second Conference on Environmental Applications), Severe Thunderstorm and Tornado Climatology (NSSL), List of strong tornadoes from 1879 to 2000,, Pages using citations with accessdate and no URL, Articles with dead external links from September 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing cleanup from September 2018, Wikipedia list cleanup from September 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This tornado was among the strongest ever recorded, with damage assessed at the highest level of the. A water pump was completely lifted out of a wellhouse along Alabama State Route 157 in this area. [11][12], Prior to 1950, assessments of F5 tornadoes are based primarily on the work of Thomas P. Grazulis.

Homes were swept away, with only a bathtub remaining on one of the foundations. [7] However, thunderstorm activity, for the moment, remained mostly elevated in nature. Acres of ground were "swept bare" in some parts of town.

[6], Seven F5s were observed—one each in Indiana, Ohio and Kentucky, three in Alabama and the final one which crossed through parts of Indiana, Ohio and Kentucky. As the cluster of thunderstorms was crossing much of the Ohio Valley and northern Indiana, additional strong storms developed much further south just east of the Mississippi River into the Tennessee Valley and Mississippi. No earlier tornadoes will be reclassified on the Enhanced Fujita scale, and no new tornadoes in the United States will be rated on the original Fujita scale. How long will the footprints on the moon last? In this area, increasing west-southwesterly wind shear at all levels of the troposphere, juxtaposed over near-parallel outflow boundaries, allowed successive supercells, all producing strong, long-tracked tornadoes, to develop unconstrained by their outflow in a broad region from south Tennessee into eastern Mississippi. 22 people were killed by this second tornado. The work of tornado expert Thomas P. Grazulis revealed the existence of several dozen likely F5 tornadoes between 1880 and 1995. Damage to the campus alone was estimated at about US$10 million. Activity in the south moved towards the Appalachians during the overnight hours and produced the final tornadoes across the southeast during the morning of April 4. Two farm complexes were completely swept away. Several teenagers were caught in the open and were picked up and thrown 1,000 yd (0.57 mi) but survived. Copyright © 2020 Multiply Media, LLC. This is a list of tornadoes which have been officially or unofficially labeled as F5, EF5, or an equivalent rating, the highest possible ratings on the various tornado intensity scales.

Rating applied by wind engineers. Students in the school, practicing for a play, took cover in the main hallway seconds before the tornado dropped a school bus onto the stage where they had been practicing and extensively damaged the school building. A car was thrown a block and a half.

1764 einen Strich von etlichen Meilen im Stargardischen Kreise des Herzogthums Mecklenburg gewaltig verwüstet hat", "The List of the Strongest Tornadoes Ever Recorded (Pre-1970): Part I", "The Great Plains Tornado Outbreak and Blackwell Tornado of 25-26 May 1955", "A Case Study in Forensic Meteorology: Investigating the 3 April 1956 Tornadoes in Western Lower Michigan | Ostuno | E-Journal of Severe Storms Meteorology", "1956 Tornado Outbreak: Vriesland to Trufant Tornado - Eyewitness Accounts", "Wichita Falls, TX Tornado, Apr 1964 - Twister Slams Wichita Falls | GenDisasters ... Genealogy in Tragedy, Disasters, Fires, Floods", "May 5, 1964: F5 Tornado Tracks From Adams To Butler County", "NWS Jackson, MS - Mar.

Five farms and a home were swept away, leaving little trace. The 1974 Super Outbreak was the second-largest tornado outbreak on record for a single 24-hour period, just behind the 2011 Super Outbreak.It was also the most violent tornado outbreak ever recorded, with 30 F4/F5 tornadoes confirmed. A large stone monastery was partially leveled to the ground. [31] Most of the town was quickly re-built afterward. At the same time a few blocks away, 16-year-old Xenia resident Bruce Boyd captured 3 minutes and 21 seconds of footage with a "Super-8" 8mm movie camera, a pre-1973 model without sound recording capability.

"Splendid homes" were swept away and "reduced to splinters.". Further along the track, many homes were swept away near Moulton. [24][41] It began shortly before 4:30 pm CDT or 5:30 pm EDT in southeastern Indiana in Ohio County north of Rising Sun near the Ohio River. Tanner was hit by yet another EF5 tornado during the second Super Outbreak on April 27, 2011.

Ultimately, a new scale was devised that took into account 28 different damage indicators; this became known as the Enhanced Fujita scale. 12 farms were flattened. Another funnel cloud formed over Standiford Field Airport, touched down at The Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, and destroyed the majority of the horse barns at the center and part of Freedom Hall (a multipurpose arena) before it crossed Interstate 65, scattering several vehicles on that busy expressway. It also heavily damaged the Penn Central bridge over the Tippecanoe River. The outbreak began in Morris, Illinois, at around 1:00 pm on April 3.

Flint-Worcester tornado outbreak sequence, February 1971 Mississippi Valley tornado outbreak, 1985 United States-Canadian tornado outbreak, Tornado outbreak sequence of May 21–26, 2011, March 1952 Southern United States tornado outbreak, Flint–Worcester tornado outbreak sequence, Tornado outbreak sequence of May 22–26, 2016, List of tornadoes striking downtown areas, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, "Top ten weather stories for 2007: Canada's First F5 Tornado", "F5 and EF5 Tornadoes of the United States", "1998-1999 Tornadoes and a Long-Term U.S. Tornado Climatology", "T. Theodore Fujita: His Contribution to Tornado Knowledge through Damage Documentation and the Fujita Scale", Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 10.1175/1520-0477(2001)000<0063:TTFHCT>2.3.CO;2, "Beschreibung des Orcans, welcher den 29.

Mattresses from the homes were transported 2 mi (3.2 km). Afterwards, the tornado weakened before dissipating in Clark County near South Vienna, traveling a little over 30 miles (48 km).

At the same time, the forward-propagating MCS spread into the Tennessee and Ohio valleys, where it evolved into the first of three main convection bands that produced tornadoes. Despite the apparent connection between La Niña and two of the largest tornado outbreaks in US history, no definitive linkage exists between La Niña and this outbreak or tornado activity in general.

[6][74][75] The National Weather Service office at Huntsville Jetplex was briefly "closed and abandoned" due to the severe weather conditions. One entire farm was swept completely away.

[citation needed] Meanwhile, the next F5 to hit the state was on April 4, 1977 near Birmingham. A house was swept away on the outskirts of town.

The 1974 Super Outbreak occurred at the end of a very strong, nearly record-setting La Niña event. [53][69] However, the rating of the second Tanner tornado is still disputed by some scientists; analysis in one publication estimates F3-F4 damage along the entirety of the second storm's path. Two of the fatalities in Tennessee occurred when a church was destroyed during service. Cherokee Park, a historic 409-acre (1.66 km2) municipal park located at Eastern Parkway and Cherokee Road, had thousands of mature trees destroyed. [8] Several of the storms to form between 1920 and 2020 UTC became significant, long-lived supercells, producing many strong or violent tornadoes,[6] including three F5s at Depauw; Xenia, Ohio; and Brandenburg, Kentucky. [30] It took several months for the city to recover from the tornado, with the help of the Red Cross and the Ohio National Guard assisting the recovery efforts.

It claimed 36 lives, destroyed 1,800 homes and damaged another 2,500, according to the National Weather Service. The tornado exhibited a multiple-vortex structure and became very large as it approached town. Although the Federal Disaster Relief Act was already introduced in 1973, it still had not passed Congress. Tornadoes are among the most violent known meteorological phenomena.

[40] Several tombstones in the Cap Anderson cemetery were toppled and broken, and some were displaced a small distance. Three farms were "wiped out of existence" with only "bits of kindling" remaining on the foundations.

[51], A total of 18 people were killed during the storm including five people from Fort Wayne when their mini-bus fell 50 feet (15 m) into the Tippecanoe River near Monticello.

[6][22] Several railroad cars were lifted and blown over as the tornado passed over a moving Penn Central freight train in the center of town.

20 farms were destroyed, some of which were obliterated. Further analysis by Ted Fujita indicated that at the start of the tornado path near Otterbein, downburst winds (also called "twisting downburst") disrupted the tornado's inflow which caused it to briefly dissipate before redeveloping near Brookston in White County at around 4:50 pm EDT and then traveled for 109 miles (175 km). Following two particularly devastating tornadoes in 1997 and 1999, engineers questioned the reliability of the Fujita scale.
A barn was destroyed and trees still standing were denuded, a flatbed truck rolled over, a car was torn apart with only the frame remaining nearby. Many farms were destroyed and some were swept completely away. 600 buildings were destroyed, and some areas were swept clean of all debris.

One of the fatalities occurred when a woman was crushed by a school bus that flew into a ditch she was sheltering in.