Instead of Classical designs, capitals and corbels were sculpted with symbols and aspects of nature. Giulio Andreini/Liaison/Hulton Archive/Getty Images (cropped). Romanesque architecture can be found from Spain and Italy in the south to Scandinavia and Scotland in the north; from Ireland and Britain in the west and to Hungary and Poland in Eastern Europe. from an article "Germanic Animal motifs in Romanesque sculpture" by George Zarnecki Artibus et Historiae vol.11.no.22,1990.p.189-203. The same monastic order would establish communities in many localities—for example, by the 11th century, the Benedictines had established communities in Ringsted (Denmark), Cluny (France), Lazio (Italy), Baden-Württemberg (Germany), Samos (Spain), and elsewhere. Dr. Jackie Craven has over 20 years of experience writing about architecture and the arts. Most of the surviving architecture is monastic churches and abbeys. The initial architecture built by William the Conqueror was the protective White Tower in London, but Romanesque-style churches dot the countryside of the British Isles. Floor Plan and Elevation Drawing of the Church of the Abbey of Cluny III, Burgundy, France. Source: Architecture through the Ages by Talbot Hamlin, Putnam, Revised 1953, p. 250, Sandro Vannini/Corbis Historical/Getty Images (cropped). The term Romanesque was never used during this feudalistic time period. Aerial View of the 1076 AD White Tower Built by William the Conqueror at the Center of the Tower of London. Many of the Romanesque abbeys we can tour today were begun by early Christians who established communities that rivaled and/or complemented the secular fiefdom systems. Columns were often the characters found in the Holy Bible. Medieval churches: sources and forms. Sculpture was also done in ivory, as the trade of walrus and elephant tusks became profitable merchandise. Romanesque design and construction evolved from early Roman and Byzantine architecture and foretold the sophisticated Gothic period that followed. In spite of the general existence of these items, Romanesque architecture varies in how these characteristics are presented. New slate roof installed 3 years ago with copper valleys and flashing, over $45,000 spent on brick renovation, new retaining wall installed 4 years ago however, this property is still a major rehab. Some have called the figures "erotic," while others see them as lustful and humorous amusements for the male occupants. Romanesque columns with owl (middle) - Neuschwanstein Castle, Bavaria, Germany. Richardson’s houses centered on a living hall, off of which the staircase and parlor flowed. By the 8th century, the Sixth-Century Plague had abated, and trade routes again became important avenues for the exchange of merchandise and ideas.