The Foys were active Methodists and founding members of the Wesleyan Chapel United Methodist Church at Scotts Hill, but the enslaved at Poplar Grove did not have a house/building specifically designated for worship. We like to think that if we were in Jerusalem, we would have stood up for Jesus, but the truth is it’s not bloody likely. On April 12, 1855, Joseph Mumford Foy purchases Williams (referenced previously) from Mr. A Smith; later that same year, on November 24, 1855, he purchases from his brother, Hiram W. Foy, a male slave named Jack; only weeks later, he purchases Robert from Mr. O. Burgess on December 11, 1855; and within a month, he purchases Toby/Tobey (referenced previously) from Joseph Mayes on January 2, 1856; months later, on March 13, 1856, he returns to Mr. A. Smith to purchase Alfred and Joseph (referenced previously); less than a year later, from Archibald Murdock McKinnon, he purchases Nancy, Harry, Stoke and Roxanne on January 14, 1857; two months later, he purchases a male named David on March 10, 1857, from Williams Bryan; later that same year, he purchases Elcy (mentioned earlier) on September 1, 1857 from the estate of George Ward, trustee Andrew J. Johnston; and lastly, on February 10, 1858, he purchases Patsey from Nicholas N. Nixon. East Carolina University. Rather, the enslaved Africans sang because they saw on the rugged wooden planks One who had endured what was their daily portion.

: Female Slaves in the Plantation South. Regular celebrations of Emancipation Day and Memorial Day were spectacles with parades and speeches by both blacks and whites. The majority were slaves working in agriculture on small- to medium-sized farms. Diary of a Contraband: The Civil War Passage of a Black Sailor. “Africans who entered this world confronted a situation not wholly unfamiliar from their own concepts of time and labor … and brought with them a task-oriented conception of work” (Kay 35). As the aging slave cabins collapsed, single and double-sided tenant houses were built close behind the Manor House and between the Manor House and western perimeter of the fields commonly referred to as “the lot.”. He had married Mary Eliza Taylor, who worked for Mrs. Nora Foy until her death in 1921, after which Mary Eliza marries Israel Jackson. In the case of Bartlett_v_Strickland, “Conservatives in the NC General Assembly sought to isolate the influence of Republicans and African Americans in New Hanover County by taking the northern two-thirds of the county and forming Pender County” (8). When James Foy, Jr. appears in the records, it is for the purchase of Hannah and an unnamed person from Edward St. George on March 6, 1809.

While evidence does not indicate that any of the Foy’s enslaved attempted self-emancipation during the Civil War, Winslow Nixon, an enslaved male at Poplar Grove, will enlist in the 14th Regiment of the US Color Troops in New Berne, NC, in 1864, while Wilmington and the surrounding area experience significant social upheaval during the conflict. God transformed lynched black bodies into the recrucified body of Christ. But for me at least, the thought of modern people who might well be fourth cousins of mine, thinking nothing of torturing and killing black people to keep them in line raises a question of whether these white people were even human. “Thus while only 31% of the families of North Carolina held slaves in 1790, the concentration of slaveholders and slaves appeared in counties where tobacco, rice and navel stores prospered. People in automobiles and carriages came from miles around to view the corpse dangling from the end of a rope…Picture card photographers installed a portable printing plant at the bridge and reaped a harvest selling the postcard showing a photograph of the lynched Negro. 10200 US Highway 17 N., Wilmington, NC 28411Get Directions, Slaves arriving from the West Indies to the Carolinas were considered, Colonial methods of the cultivation of crops and gardens was considered “crude, unscientific and wasteful” by the English and Europeans. Mary “Maudie” Hines, a former enslaved, communicated that the community of enslaved were not allowed to gather in groups to pray, and instead “prayed in pots” – a Gullah practice of ensuring prayers were not overhead by enslavers. If we come to this table with the terrible image of the lynching tree in our minds it may restore for us what they used to call the “terrible beauty” of the cross. “Though discovery meant severe punishment, slaves often slipped about surreptitiously in the evening hours, visiting friends and family on other plantations, worshiping, courting, hunting, fishing, and trading illicitly. We don’t often think of it as an act of mob violence supported by government and religious authorities. Greenville, NC.

By comparison, 744 of the 34,658 slaveholders in North Carolina owned more than fifty slaves. The Foys were active Methodists and founding members of the Wesleyan Chapel United Methodist Church at Scotts Hill, but the enslaved at Poplar Grove did not have a house/building specifically designated for worship. Such a concentration of slaves had one salutary effect for blacks. In fact, by 1850, only 91 slave owners in the whole state owned over 100 slaves.

Furthermore, and not unlike the management practices of plantations populated along the coastlines of the Carolinas, “West Africans also shared  with them a notion of time as dictated by the seasons, natural phenomena such as the phases of the moon, and the harvesting of particular crops” (35).

Manumission, the process to free a person enslaved, would have been very difficult and expensive for a planter in North Carolina due to a state law passed in 1830. Slaves arriving from the West Indies to the Carolinas were considered well-seasoned, or rather broken in mind, body and spirit to the permanent conditions of slavery in the New World, both like and unlike the practices of slavery on the African continent between warring and rival tribes. “The presence of a coastal escape route was widely known in tidewater slave communities, among merchants and planters who went to great lengths to control it … Wilmington, the largest port in antebellum North Carolina, had a special reputation, in the words of a Rocky Point planter, as ‘an asylum for Runaways’ because of its location near the mouth of the Cape Fear River, its steady sea traffic, its strong ties to New England, and its black-majority population” (Celeskit 124). The cross was treasured because it enthroned the One who went all the way with them and for them. The boy belonging to J. S. Newton is well posted about every thing on the point, having been at Fort Fisher since it was first commenced.