Santa Cruz de Nuca remained under the control of New Spain until 1795, when it was abandoned under the terms of the third Nootka Convention.

The Spanish colonization there, with far fewer known natural resources and less cultural development than Mexico or Peru, was to combine establishing a presence for defense of the territory with a perceived responsibility to convert the indigenous people to Christianity. [141], In the seventeenth century, patterns shifted in Yucatán and Tabasco, as the English took territory the Spanish claimed but did not control, especially what became British Honduras (now Belize), where they cut dyewood and in Laguna de Términos (Isla del Carmen) where they cut logwood. Plus de 100 pages utilisent ce fichier.

It also established a small number of manufactories of finished products, and licensed distribution outlets (estanquillos). [138] Production of cotton textiles, largely by Maya women, helped pay households' tribute obligations, but basic crops were the basis of the economy. Mercene, Floro L. Manila Men in the New World: Filipino Migration to Mexico and the Americas from the Sixteenth Century. In 1786 it became the capital of an intendancy of the same name. After the arrival of the Spanish, they domesticated indigo and created plantations for its cultivation in Yucatan, El Salvador, and Guatemala. San Antonio, Texas.

Gold mining was an early draw for Spaniards, who directed indigenous labor to its extraction, but did not continue beyond the mid-sixteenth century.

[89] The crown also set up warehouses to store up to a year's worth of supplies, including paper for cigarettes, for the manufactories.

For example, after a period of experimentation in which an independent intendant was assigned to Mexico City, the office was thereafter given to the same person who simultaneously held the post of viceroy. Before, the Spanish-American War, the Philippines had an almost successful revolt against Spain under the uprising of Andres Novales which were supported by Criollos and Latin Americans who were the Philippines, mainly by the former Latino officers “americanos”, composed mostly of Mexicans with a sprinkling of creoles and mestizos from the now independent nations of Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Chile, Argentina and Costa Rica. [83] Spaniards also settled in the temperate area of Orizaba, east of the Citlaltepetl volcano. The cah retained considerable land under the control of religious brotherhoods or confraternities (cofradías), the device by which Maya communities avoided colonial officials, the clergy, or even indigenous rulers (gobernadores) from diverting of community revenues in their cajas de comunidad (literally community-owned chests that had locks and keys). The North was outside the area of complex indigenous populations, inhabited primarily by nomadic and hostile northern indigenous groups. The South (Oaxaca, Michoacan, Yucatán, and Central America) was a region of dense indigenous settlement of Mesoamerica, but without exploitable resources of interest to Europeans, the area attracted few Europeans, while the indigenous presence remained strong.

Initially, the missionaries hoped to create a large body of Amerindian priests, but this did not come to be.
In New Spain the high court was established in 1527, prior to the establishment of the viceroyalty. Despite their late creation, these intendancies so affected the formation of regional identity that they became the basis for the nations of Central America and the first Mexican states after independence. During the period 1580–1640 when Spain and Portugal were ruled by the same monarch and Portuguese slave traders had access to Spanish markets, African slaves were imported in large numbers to New Spain and many of them remained in the region of Veracruz.

In the Bajío estate owners were evicting tenants in favor of renters better able to pay more for land, there was a disruption of previous patterns of mutual benefit between estate owners and renters. It was, to 3 1/8 stripes of blue, white and red followed by a 1/4 stripe of yellow, mirrored by 3 other 1/8 stripes. However, these resources did not translate into development for the Metropolis (mother country) due to Spanish Roman Catholic Monarchy's frequent preoccupation with European wars (enormous amounts of this wealth were spent hiring mercenaries to fight the Protestant Reformation), as well as the incessant decrease in overseas transportation caused by assaults from companies of British buccaneers, Dutch corsairs and pirates of various origin. In addition to the Church's explicit political role, the Catholic faith became a central part of Spanish identity after the conquest of last Muslim kingdom in the peninsula, the Emirate of Granada, and the expulsion of all Jews who did not convert to Christianity. Central America was originally planned to be part of the Mexican Empire; but it seceded peacefully in 1823, forming the United Provinces of Central America under the Constitution of 1824. Some of the most important early buildings in New Spain were churches and other religious architecture. As a result, the colonial population of California remained small, widely scattered and near the coast.

Optimized svg code with code cleanup and reduction. During the following centuries, under Spanish rule, a new culture developed that combined the customs and traditions of the indigenous peoples with that of Catholic Spain.

Manuel Carrera Stampa, "La Nao de la China", The Unlucky Country: The Republic of the Philippines in the 21St Century By Duncan Alexander McKenzie (page xii). Bucareli was opposed to Gálvez's plan to implement the new administrative organization of intendancies, which he believed would burden areas with sparse population with excessive costs for the new bureaucracy.[52].
[61][62] In the aftermath, Spain, in order to ensure obedience to the empire, disconnected the Philippines from her Latin-American allies and placed in the Spanish army of the colony, Peninsulars from the mainland which displaced and angered the Latin-American and Filipino soldiers who were at the Philippines.[63]. Indigo, like cacao, was native to the region, and the indigenous peoples gathered wild indigo, used for dying cloth and as a trade good. The loss of Mobile and Pensacola left the British with no bases along the Gulf Coast. These communities retained their land, indigenous languages, and distinct ethnic identities. In contrast to the Zapotecs, the Zoque generally declined as a group during the ranching boom, with interloping animals eating their maize crops. [154] The Dominicans also had significant holdings in Tehuantepec, but there has been little research on these. The Bourbons sought a return to the monarchical ideal of having those not directly connected with local elites as administrators, who in theory should be disinterested, staff the higher echelons of regional government.

In Bolivia, it was from the single rich mountain of Potosí; but in New Spain, there were two major mining sites, one in Zacatecas, the other in Guanajuato. Both sides sought to define a northern boundary for New Spain. Philip II sought systematic information about his overseas empire and mandated reports, known as the Relaciones geográficas, with text on topography, economic conditions, and populations among other information.

This left only Cuba and Puerto Rico in the Spanish West Indies, and the Philippines in the Spanish East Indies as part of the Spanish Empire; until their loss to the United States in the Spanish–American War (1898).

West of Mexico City the settlement of Valladolid (Michoacan) was founded (1529–41). Other kingdoms of the Spanish Empire bordered New Spain and were given the right of appeal to the most senior representative of the king. Founded in 1531 as a Spanish settlement, Puebla de los Angeles quickly rose to the status of Mexico's second-most important city. Ranching emerged as the dominant rural enterprise in most of Tehuantepec with a ranching boom in the period 1580–1640.

[36] Due to the missionary nature of the Philippine colony, unlike in Mexico where most immigrants were of a civilian nature, most settlers in the Philippines were either: soldiers, merchants or clergy and were overwhelmingly male. The indigenous population was very large in comparison to the Spanish, and there were relatively few Africans.

The Spanish system of land grants was not very successful, however, because the grants were merely royal concessions—not actual land ownership. The most important was the Marquisate of the Valley of Oaxaca, property of Hernán Cortés and his descendants that included a set of vast territories where marquises had civil and criminal jurisdiction, and the right to grant land, water and forests and within which were their main possessions (cattle ranches, agricultural work, sugar mills, fulling houses and shipyards).

The crown also established a standing military, with the aim of defending its overseas territories. Browse thousands of community created Minecraft Banners on Planet Minecraft!

A network of Spanish towns was established in this region of commercial agriculture, with Querétaro also becoming a center of textile production.

To the west of the continent, New Spain also included the Spanish East Indies (the Philippine Islands, the Mariana Islands, the Caroline Islands, parts of Taiwan, and parts of the Moluccas).

[115], In the late colonial period, renting complemented estate employment for many non-Indians in more central areas of the Bajío with access to markets. The territory's indigenous population resented the Spanish prohibition of their traditional religion, and the encomienda system of forced labor. The area was characterized by intensely cultivated chinampas, man-made extensions of cultivable land into the lake system. In the late 18th century the Bourbon dynasty began phasing out the corregidores and introduced intendants, whose broad fiscal powers cut into the authority of the viceroys, governors and cabildos.