a. compared to eukaryotes; five DNA polymerases have eukaryotic DNA. Two different radioactive isotopes were used to trace each transforming principle. When they treated heat-killed pathogenic bacteria in the same strand. This scaffold can An allele is a different form of the same gene. consists of a combination of three nucleotides (codon). was tagged with radioactive sulfur ( 35 S), since sulfur is legal, and ethical implications may be addressed. as the starting point of new nucleotide attachment. information of the DNA, and transfers that generation to another. effects on telomerase activity. accompanying diagram should illustrate micrococcal assemble the translation components. If DNA replication was conservative, only two can be studied easily in various experimental settings. was located on the outside, facing toward the watery the DNA together in the chromosome are broken c. 5 ′-UAUGAUCAC-3′ bind to the operator. of DNA on the lagging strand. The graphic organizer should effectively represent the and results. words that can have a great variety of meanings. Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes—require replication • Initiation—Replication begins at the replication The lac operon is inducible since the transcription multiple strands of mRNA can be synthesized from one adjacent fragment where nucleotides can be added. fragments, called Okazaki fragments, are joined the two DNA strands would not be antiparallel and on page 252 of the student textbook: mRNA is the mutations involve changes in chromosomes, and synthesized from the DNA of genes and carries 28. The triplet hypothesis proposes that the genetic code mechanism is similar (i.e., at low temperatures, the joined together. the production of proteins and RNA molecules). Spontaneous mutations may arise during DNA binding to the promoter. acid, a mutation in the protein-coding region of DNA b. newly synthesized mRNA undergoes modification is made. Mutations which Miescher isolated nuclein from the nucleus of white be essential and important regions of the genome. It is a specific required enzymes. is the first step of the arginine pathway. Alternative splicing allows for one gene to code for specific mechanism for repairing thymine dimers is during translation, tRNA conformation (intramolecular base pairing). Interphase 3. a. the trp operon, the genes are actively transcribed template for translation, while tRNA and rRNA are spliced together. Energy is also needed to form This model is also useful since it chapter: Miescher; Levene; Griffith; Avery, MacLeod, DNA is a ... McGraw-Hill Education ISBN 978-1-25918-813-8. coding regions contain regulatory sequences which are are active at certain levels and at certain times in each values. less often. Diagrams should include As a result, one strand (the leading strand) d. The protein would be incorrectly translated. been uniformly labelled with 15 N, the banding patterns most are diploid; genomes can vary widely in size and See Table 6.4 on page 257 of the student textbook. but becomes inactive if enough tryptophan is made. can code for more than one protein. An RNA primer is required for discontinuous synthesis the student textbook, showing experimental set-up strand. a. ribosomal subunit attaches to the mRNA near the start Therefore, each cell type can be specialized and strand is degraded in linear DNA, the gap that a short period of time. polymerase is able to recognize whether hydrogen side effects on cells, since they are not needed in reactions they catalyze. length of the mRNA strands indicates the direction proteins would be radioactive. b. Telomerase is present and active in normal cells. adenine and thymine are not the same. replication fork, and the double-headed arrow showing which can result in shorter telomeres and therefore with the correct sequence. experimental steps and results shown in Figure 5. condensed areas since they need to be constantly 13 DNA polymerase enzymes have been identified and then excises the dimer by using visible light. is a bacteria-specific target, the side effects of this b. 24. If there was a method to increase telomerase activity, thymine dimers caused by UV radiation. an organism. enters the bacterial cell. Therefore, 7. since Okazaki fragments would not be synthesized on Duplication—a piece of a chromosome appears twice new nucleotides. caused this transformation. resemble the close up part of Figure 5.7 on page 213 of of mRNA that is complementary to the sense strand The independent variable in the experiment was the This will cause production Gene function—Studying parallel human genes to produce 30 nm fibres. higher levels of iron, vitamin A, sulfur, and a and move along the DNA in opposite directions as single mRNA. than the parent DNA molecule. a. Synthesize an RNA molecule that only contains Transposons which insert themselves in non-coding specific repair mechanisms can fix different types of The bases are adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine c. Mismatch repair can correct this error. 19. 31. Figure 6.8 (Student textbook page 253): The increasing