Each black rectangle in the illustration represents a different sectional chart. Whenever possible, remote pilot operators should use Terminal Area Charts (TAC) charts because of the increased amount of detail. By using LiveAbout, you accept our, What You Need for Nautical Navigation With a Chart, Tips for Navigating with a Nautical Chart, Comparing AIS Boating Apps: Ship Finder, Marine Traffic, Boat Beacon, How to Make Your Own Logbook for Your Boat, How to Rescue a Man Overboard in a Sailboat, Illustrated Step-by-Step Long Jump Technique, Parallel plotter (preferably with rollers). September 18, 2012 ~ Sailing navigation begins--as does all of navigation--with a good grip on how to use time, distance and speed. What is the position of the Catalina Airport in Degrees Minutes? It is common for several airports to use the same CTAF. The “Prime Meridian,” which passes through Greenwich, England, is used as the zero line from which measurements are made in degrees east (E) and west (W) to 180°. By referring to the chart legend, a pilot can interpret most of the information on the chart. Navigational aids of all types help you find your way or keep out of danger. My guess is simply that the sectionals are drawn to the same scale, and the longitude lines get closer together. Distances at sea are measured in nautical miles. In this example, we are flying from Jamestown Airport to Cooperstown Airport, which is a northeasterly direction. 4 to 1. Rotate the compass until the north arrows are parallel to the lines of longitude on the sectional chart. The chart provides information that allows pilots to trac… The last step is to run the course using a stopwatch. LiveAbout uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. Additionally, using the Legend in the Testing Supplement will help greatly in reading the chart. Study the examples below using the fixed plotter or rotation plotter. A simple way to navigate without a GPS or other electronics is to plot a course on a nautical chart, and for each leg of the course figure the bearing, speed, distance, and time you will travel. I only use Lat & Long to line up when plotting across more than one sectional. 43°32.9999 N: 7°05.9999 E: 43°32'59.99" N: 7°5'59.99" E: i It is important to note determining the maximum elevation figure of a quadrant depends on whether the highest obstacle is natural (like a tree) or man-made. The * indicates the tower only operates part time. 7. Plot the course using buoys, lights, and other aids to. 60 = 19.2 minutes (Time), D ÷ S = T (in decimals of an Generally these are not as useful to Remote Pilots because the lack of detail. Always deviate from your plotted course to avoid unsafe conditions or a collision. Align the straight edge over COU. For example, 40.6892° N, the decimal value is 0.6892. 74 is the length of the longest runway, in hundreds of feet. *. 2 to 3. (45° 53.9'N 05° 47.0'W) Count tick marks, each equates to 1 minute, with slightly larger ones at 5 and 10 minute intervals. This is done by putting one end of the dividers on your start point, and the other end at your stop point or turn. As a remote-pilot, you should monitor this frequency using an aviation hand-held radio to stay aware of the position of manned aircraft around you. A few pages further, locate the description for number 26 and find plenty of information regarding Weather Data Sources. Here: 7400 feet. Distances at sea are measured in nautical miles. The more charts you use and look at, the easier they are to read and use to answer questions. Stage 1 – Primary Maneuvers and Introduction to Decision Making, Unit 2 – The Four Fundamentals in Three Dimensions, Stage 2 – Advanced Maneuvers and Risk Management, Unit 2 – Stall Review and Incipient Spin Recoveries, Unit 4 – Let’s Review – Maneuvers, Ground Reference and Emergencies, Unit 5 – Operating at Short and Soft Fields, Unit 3 – Introduction to Night Operations, Unit 4 – Maneuver Review and Emergency Instrument Flying, Unit 5 – Dual Night Cross Country and Pattern Work, Stage 4 – Preparation for the Practical Test, Unit 1 – Introduction to the Practical Test, Unit 2 – Mock Checkride – Navigation, Ground Reference and Traffic Pattern Focus, Unit 3 – Mock Checkride – High Airwork and Emergency Instrument Flying Focus, Unit 4 – Mock Checkride – Emergencies and Traffic Pattern Focus, Unit 5 – Mock Checkride with another instructor, Unit 1 – Simulator familiarization and flight in the traffic pattern, Unit 2 – Short flight from uncontrolled airport to a second uncontrolled airport, Unit 3 – Tower Controlled Airport Traffic Pattern, Unit 4 – Class D Airport to Class D Airport without Traffic Advisories, Unit 5 – Introduction to ATC Radar Service and Traffic Advisories, Unit 6 – Class Delta Airport to Class Delta Airport with Traffic Advisories, Unit 8 – Class D Airspace Transition with Approach Control, Unit 10 – Class Charlie Airport Departure, Task C: Systems and Equipment Malfunctions, Task D: Emergency Equipment and Survival Gear. To confirm this, find more information about the airport in the. These charts are similar to sectional charts, and the symbols are the same except there is less detail due to the smaller scale. If available for your area, you should use the TAC rather than the Sectional as it is much more detailed. Most of the content in these books is abbreviated or codified, the key to understandin it is once again the legend and *the sample airport located at the beginning. The distance between SET and COU is 85nm. Only at the Equator are the lines of latitude and longitude at the same distance. To the right of the airport symbol is the airport data. 1. The airport has a control tower (blue symbol), and the Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF) frequency is 118.2* MHz. hour) x 60 (to convert the decimals into minutes). 5. Use an aviation hand-held radio to listen to it. 8. For a quadrant in which the highest obstacle is natural. It is notoriously difficult to estimate distances at sea by eye, but multiples of 200m are not to hard to guess. ASOS, Airport Surface Observation System, is a system with similar reporting to AWOS-3.2320 is the airport elevation, in feet, above sea level. So you could say you were 3 cables from a buoy, as a means of describing your position. Then, without moving the dividers, place them on the nautical mile scale and read the distance. When taking the knowledge test, you’ll be given a printed copy of this TESTING SUPPLEMENT. The 48 contiguous states are between 25° and 49° N latitude 67° and 125° W longitude. There is a key on the Legend about how to read detailed Airport information on each of the Sectional Charts. Speed is expressed as Knots. The three measurements are Nautical Miles, Statute Miles, and Kilometers. Cartographers (chart makers) create a grid-like web on your nautical chart. Read the course on the compass that is aligned with the arrow on the plotter that is aligned with the drawn course line. What does the symbol at each position indicate? Using the Minot Intl Airport as an example (refer to Figure 21 in the Testing Supplement). You will also know about underwater obstructions that may not be visible and overhead bridges and power lines that could get in your way. Additionally, using the Legend in the Testing Supplement will help greatly in reading the chart. An important note about the airport symbols: Airports having control towers are shown in blue, all others in magenta. Measure the distance with your dividers, parallel rules, a regular ruler or even a piece of paper! In the latter case, the standard convention is for the bearing to be from the known point. 1∘ degree of Latitude = 60’ (minute) or 60 nautical miles. The result is the amount of time in minutes and seconds it will take to complete the course line you plotted. Each black rectangle in the illustration represents a different sectional chart. 3.2 n/m (Distance) ÷ 10knots (Speed) = 0.32 x Terminal Area Charts (TACs) provide a large scale of 1:250,000 (1 inch = 3.43 NM or approximately 4 SM). Calculate distances - nautical miles or kilometers for seagoing ships and vessels. One minute is one nautical mile (M) at that latitude because on Mercator Projection charts the latitude scale increases the further north you travel. Historically, degrees are divided in minutes and seconds (1 degree = 60 minutes, 1 minute = 60 seconds) . Historically, degrees are divided in minutes and seconds (1 degree = 60 minutes, 1 minute = 60 seconds).